The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) in northwest Indian subcontinent (including present day Pakistan, northwest India) and also in some regions in northeast Afghanistan. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and the most widespread among them, covering an area of 1.25 million km. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the now dried up Sarasvati River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan together with its tributaries flowed along a channel, presently identified as that of the Ghaggar-Hakra River on the basis of various scientific studies. Due to the spread of the civilization along both the river valleys, some scholars use the term Indus-Sarasvati Civilization.
At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of more than 5 million inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings.
The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India, and is now in Pakistan. The discovery of Harappa, and soon afterwards, Mohenjo Daro, was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj. Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, and pre-Harappan cultures, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. The Harappan civilization is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures. Bhirrana in Haryana, India may be the oldest pre-Harappan site, dating back to 7570-6200 BCE.
By 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements had been found, of which 96 have been excavated, mainly in the general region of the Indus and the Sarasvati River and their tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Ganeriwala in Cholistan and Rakhigarhi, Rakhigarhi in Haryana, India, being the largest Indus Valley Civilization site with 350-hectare area.
Oct – Mar
Upon arrival welcome guest & transfer to hotel.
After an early breakfast, visit Mazar-e-Quaid and then drive to visit National MuseumKarachi.
National Museum Karachi: Karachi National Museum of Pakistan is located at Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed Road, Karachi. The National Museum of Pakistan was established in Frere Hall on 17 April 1950, replacing the defunct Victoria Museum. Frere Hall itself was built in 1865 as a tribute to Sir Bartle Frere, a Commissioner of Sind during the 19th century.
Visit and continue drive to Thatta. On the way to Thatta, visit Chaukhandi tombs and Makli hills at Thatta.
Shah Jahan Mosque: The mosque was built in 1647, as a gift to the people of Sindh against their support to Mughal King Humayun to reestablish Mughal Empire in Indian Subcontinent. It has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Lunch Box will be served.
Hyderabad: In 711 C, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the town. By the mid-712, Muslim armies had conquered much of the Sindh. However, later in an agreement with local authorities of the Sindh, the Arab forces halted their advances and ceased military activities in Sindh in return for peaceful conduct of affairs. After a brief rule of Arabs and local leaders, Sindh came under the rule of local Somroos, who were local Sindhis converted to Islam. Somroo rule was followed by the great Samma dynasty rule. By the end of Samma dynasty rule, Sindh was occupied by invading Afghan warlords who lost the empire to Mughal Empire after a brief period of rule.
Photo stop at clock tower Hyderabad
Upon arrival at Hyderabad, transfer to hotel for dinner & overnight.
After breakfast, drive from Hyderabad to Sukkur via KotDiji visit.
KotDiji is situated between Ranipur and Khairpur on the highway from Hyderabad, at the east bank of the Indus close to Rohri. The discovery of KotDiji provides the evidence that there is a civilization before Mohenjo-Daro. Archaeologists say that the discovery of this pre-historic site has furnished information of high significance since it pushed back the pre-historic of Pakistan by at least another 300 years from about 2,500 B.C. to 2,800 B.C.
Near to the Kotdigi site, there is a fort from 17th Century.
The front door of KotdigiQilla has huge protective iron nails from elephant attack. The door is situated in a 45 degree turn to avoid a straight army attack.
Hot lunch at local restaurant.
After visit, continue drive to Sukkur.
Sukkur is in Southeastern Pakistan in Sindh Province, on the Indus River. It is the third biggest city of Sindh and has a glorious past. In Sindhi language Sukkur means “superior”. Sukkur was built by the British General Sir Charles Napier in 1840.
Upon arrival, transfer to hotel for dinner & overnight.
After breakfast, drive from Sukkur to Mohenjo-daro.
Mohenjo-Daro: “Mound of the Dead” is an ancient Indus Valley Civilization city that flourished between 2600 and 1900 BC. The site was discovered in the 1920s and lies in Pakistan’s Sindh province. Mohenjodaro is one of the world’s first cities and in ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations has been sometimes referred to as “An Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis.”
Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Hot Lunch will be served at local restaurant.
After visit, drive back to Sukkur, transfer tohotel for dinner and overnight.
After an early breakfast, drive to Bahawalpur, enroute visit the Tomb of Bibi Jawindi at Uch.
Lunch at local Quetta restaurant on the way to Uch.
After lunch continue drive to Uch and upon arrival proceed to the site for visit.
UCH Sharif -which is an insignificant town today but during the 13th century it was an important center for religious, cultural and literary pursuits and attracted scholars, saints, and poets and from several parts of Asia.
After the visit of Tomb Bibi Jawindi, continue drive to Bahawalpur.
Upon arrival, transfer to Hotel for dinner and overnight.
After an early breakfast, drive to Derawar, visit the fort and also take the camel ride.
Lunch at local restaurant on the way back to Bahawalpur.
After lunch continue drive to Multan, upon arrival proceed to the sightseeing of Multan, including Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam and BahudinZakria.
Later transfer tohotel for dinner and overnight.
After breakfast drive to Harappa and up to Lahore. Harappa- is about 180Km and about 3 & half hour drive from Multan.
Upon arrival, visit the Harappa Museum & site.
Lunch at local restaurant around Sahiwal.
HARAPPA: Harappa is Indus valley civilization site dating 3000BC. It is an archaeological site in Punjab. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River.
After site visit continue drive to Lahore.
Upon arrival transfer to hotelfor dinner and overnight.
Breakfast at hotel and sightseeing of Lahore.
Lahore was a thriving culture centre of the great Mughal Empire. Mughal Emperors beautified Lahore with palaces, Gardens and Mosques. Visit Lahore Fort, constructed around 1516 A.D by the Mughal Emperor Akbar the great. There is evidence that a mud fort was in existence here in 1021AD as well, when Muhammad Ghazan invaded this area. Akbar demolished the old mud fort and constructed most of the modern fort.
Badshahi Mosque. The Mosque made up entirely of red sandstones, was built by Aurangzeb the last of great Mughal Emperors in record time of two and-a-half years. It was completed in 1674. Lahore Museum has some of fine specimens of Mughal, Sikh, British and also Fasting Buddha.
Shalimar Garden laid out by Mughal Emperor Shah-Jehan in 1642 A.D, Later proceed to Wagah Border for Flag ceremony. Dinner and transfer to airport.